TURING TYPE



   🐠
phi

gr
manu

ala

ha

lip


land



nsj
b

ege
el

nt
ring
all

g

a
u

enn


an
de




y






Turing Type
by folkert.link

Cargo ID: 1150872
Contact
Instagram
Turing Type is a gathering of short texts and a collection of personal photographs. (As well, there is an appendix for additional information.) The common thread for all, is the presence of Turing type conceptions, that is, thoughts based on or related to certain discoveries of Alan Turing. Although Turing is well known and contemporarily celebrated as the father of modern computing — he was also the progenitor of a type of mathematical biology focusing on pattern formation, which he collected and published in his Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Turing Type is mainly concerned with this late work.

Around a decade ago I was introduced to Turing’s reaction-diffusion theories through the writing of Philip Ball. Ball’s expositions of these Turing Patterns completely seeped into my thinking; they became a chief filter through which I saw the world. I started to detect exquisite examples of these traveling waves and self-organizing systems everywhere. I tried to document them with a camera; an archive of these recordings is collected on this site.

Thanks to Ben for the education and Matt for the organization.






Philip Ball

Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology

The Royal Society
April 19 2015
Link

(Text is paraphrased)
1            The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system occurs in many types of natural process, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Alan Turing’s stripe patterns resemble not only the skin of a zebra, tiger or angelfish, but also patterns in inanimate nature, such as the ripples in wind-blown sand. The formation of these patterns is akin to a reaction–diffusion system, which appears to have relevance not just for developmental biology but for chemistry, geomorphology, plant biology, ecology, sociology and perhaps even astrophysics; a reaction–diffusion mechanism has, for example, been suggested as the origin of spiral galaxies.







Greg Egan

Orphanogenesis, an excerpt from the novel Diaspora

HarperCollins
1997
Link
2            A second wave was added — running askew to the first, modulated with a slow steady rise — carving each ridge into a series of ascending mounds. Then a third, and a fourth, each successive wave enriching the pattern, complicating and fracturing its symmetries: defining directions, building up gradients, establishing a hierarchy of scales. The fortieth wave ploughed through an abstract topography bearing no trace of the crystalline regularity of its origins, with ridges and furrows as convoluted as the whorls of a fingerprint. Not every point had been rendered unique — but enough structure had been created to act as the framework for everything to come. So the seed gave instructions for a hundred copies of itself to be scattered across the freshly calibrated landscape.







Manuel De Landa

A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History

Zone Books
2000
Link
3            Despite the many differences between them, living creatures and their inorganic counterparts share a crucial dependence on intense flows of energy and materials. In many respects the circulation is what matters, not the particular forms that it causes to emerge. As the biogeographer Ian G. Simmons puts it, “The flows of energy and mineral nutrients through an ecosystem manifest themselves as actual animals and plants of a particular species.” Our organic bodies are, in this sense, nothing but temporary coagulations in these flows: we capture in our bodies a certain portion of the flow at birth, then release it again when we die and microorganisms transform us into a new batch of raw materials.


 




Alan Turing

The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis

University of Manchester
1952
Link [PDF]
4            It is suggested that a system of chemical substances, called morphogens, reacting together and diffusing through a tissue, is adequate to account for the main phenomena of morphogenesis. ( ) Such reaction-diffusion systems are considered in some detail ( ). It is suggested that this might account, for instance, for the tentacle patterns on Hydra and for whorled leaves. ( ) Another reaction system in two dimensions gives rise to patterns reminiscent of dappling. It is also suggested that stationary waves in two dimensions could account for the phenomena of phyllotaxis.







Hans Jenny

Cymatics — A Study of Wave Phenomena and Vibration
 

1967–1974
Link [PDF]
Cymatics (Wiki)

(Text is paraphrased)
5            Whenever we look in nature, animate or inanimate, we see widespread evidence of periodic systems. Events do not take place in a continuous sequence, but are in a state of constant vibration, oscillation, undulation and pulsation. On the largest and smallest scale we find repetitive patterns: from the space lattices of mineralogy to cosmic systems — rotations, pulsations, turbulences, circulations, plasma oscillations — down to the world of atomic or even nuclear physics. Periodicity also expands to include the oceans, and the fault systems of geographical formations that affect immense areas of rock.









Stars as atoms; atoms as stars.



iPhone video of fluid dynamics in a body of water; a web of crests and troughs forms a lattice of refracted light. The dispersion of waves looks like a sped-up version of the Universe simulation on the right.

Simulation of a section of the Universe at its largest scale; a web of cosmic filaments forms a lattice of matter. These filaments are massive thread-like formations comprised of huge amounts of galaxies, gas and ‘dark matter.’ (Image: Greg Poole)





Additional information:

  1. Link: Fluid simulation with reaction-diffusion patterns
  2. Link: Fluid dynamics simulation
  3. Link: Turing patterns made with WebGL simulations
  4. Link: Jonathan McCabe Vimeo feed
  5. Link: Paul Prudence Twitter feed
  6. Link: Fractal simulation animation
  7. Link: Powers of Ten and the Relative Size of Things in the Universe

  8. Book:  Nature’s Patterns — Philip Ball
  9. Book:  Disaspora — Greg Egan
  10. Book: A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History — Manuel De Landa
  11. Book:  Cymatics: A Study of Wave Phenomena & Vibration — Hans Jenny
  12. PDF: The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis — Alan Turing
  13. PDF:  Cyclic Symmetric Multi-Scale Turing Patterns by Jonathan McCabe

  14. Video: Metabolizing Complexity — Ben Cerveny
  15. Video: The Augmented World Experience — Ben Cerveny
  16. Video: Documentary: The Secret Life of Chaos
  17. Video: Philip Ball on Alan Turing’s research on morphogenesis
  18. Video:  Reaction-Diffusion-based animation
  19. Video:   Fluid Dynamics Simulation
  20. Video:  Documentary on Cymatics
  21. Video:  Demonstration of Chladni Patterns
  22. Video:  Demonstration of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
  23. Video:  How Does Life Come From Randomness?
  24. Video:  Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in cellular automata




TURING
TYPE


Turing Type by folkert.link
ContactInstagram

Turing Type is a gathering of short texts and a collection of personal photographs. (As well, there is an appendix for additional information.) The common thread for all, is the presence of Turing type conceptions, that is, thoughts based on or related to certain discoveries of Alan Turing. Although Turing is well known and contemporarily celebrated as the father of modern computing — he was also the progenitor of a type of mathematical biology focusing on pattern formation, which he collected and published in his Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Turing Type is mainly concerned with this late work.

Around a decade ago I was introduced to Turing’s reaction-diffusion theories through the writing of Philip Ball. Ball’s expositions of these Turing Patterns completely seeped into my thinking; they became a chief filter through which I saw the world. I started to detect exquisite examples of these traveling waves and self-organizing systems everywhere. I tried to document them with a camera; an archive of these recordings is collected on this site.

Thanks to Ben for the education and Matt for the organization.






Philip Ball

Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology

The Royal Society
April 19 2015
Link

(Text is paraphrased)
1            The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system occurs in many types of natural process, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Alan Turing’s stripe patterns resemble not only the skin of a zebra, tiger or angelfish, but also patterns in inanimate nature, such as the ripples in wind-blown sand. The formation of these patterns is akin to a reaction–diffusion system, which appears to have relevance not just for developmental biology but for chemistry, geomorphology, plant biology, ecology, sociology and perhaps even astrophysics; a reaction–diffusion mechanism has, for example, been suggested as the origin of spiral galaxies.


03_DSC_7405.jpg

07_DSC_0174.jpg

04_DSC_1007.jpg






Greg Egan

Orphanogenesis, an excerpt from the novel Diaspora

HarperCollins
1997
Link
2            A second wave was added — running askew to the first, modulated with a slow steady rise — carving each ridge into a series of ascending mounds. Then a third, and a fourth, each successive wave enriching the pattern, complicating and fracturing its symmetries: defining directions, building up gradients, establishing a hierarchy of scales. The fortieth wave ploughed through an abstract topography bearing no trace of the crystalline regularity of its origins, with ridges and furrows as convoluted as the whorls of a fingerprint. Not every point had been rendered unique — but enough structure had been created to act as the framework for everything to come. So the seed gave instructions for a hundred copies of itself to be scattered across the freshly calibrated landscape.


05_DSC_3644.jpg

06_DSC_0479.jpg

08_DSC_4818.jpg

09_DSC_0641.jpg






Manuel De Landa

A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History

Zone Books
2000
Link
3            Despite the many differences between them, living creatures and their inorganic counterparts share a crucial dependence on intense flows of energy and materials. In many respects the circulation is what matters, not the particular forms that it causes to emerge. As the biogeographer Ian G. Simmons puts it, “The flows of energy and mineral nutrients through an ecosystem manifest themselves as actual animals and plants of a particular species.” Our organic bodies are, in this sense, nothing but temporary coagulations in these flows: we capture in our bodies a certain portion of the flow at birth, then release it again when we die and microorganisms transform us into a new batch of raw materials.


02_DSC_0465.jpg

12_DSC_0461.jpg

13_DSC_0822.jpg

10_DSC_1383.jpg

14_DSC_9349.jpg

11_DSC_0657.jpg






Alan Turing

The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis

University of Manchester
1952
Link [PDF]
4            It is suggested that a system of chemical substances, called morphogens, reacting together and diffusing through a tissue, is adequate to account for the main phenomena of morphogenesis. ( ) Such reaction-diffusion systems are considered in some detail ( ). It is suggested that this might account, for instance, for the tentacle patterns on Hydra and for whorled leaves. ( ) Another reaction system in two dimensions gives rise to patterns reminiscent of dappling. It is also suggested that stationary waves in two dimensions could account for the phenomena of phyllotaxis.


16_DSC_0831.jpg

18_DSC_4761.jpg

17_DSC_4789.jpg

15_DSC_0604.jpg






Hans Jenny

Cymatics — A Study of Wave Phenomena and Vibration
 

1967–1974
Link [PDF]
Cymatics (Wiki)

(Text is paraphrased)
5            Whenever we look in nature, animate or inanimate, we see widespread evidence of periodic systems. Events do not take place in a continuous sequence, but are in a state of constant vibration, oscillation, undulation and pulsation. On the largest and smallest scale we find repetitive patterns: from the space lattices of mineralogy to cosmic systems — rotations, pulsations, turbulences, circulations, plasma oscillations — down to the world of atomic or even nuclear physics. Periodicity also expands to include the oceans, and the fault systems of geographical formations that affect immense areas of rock.



23_DSC_5902.jpg

19_DSC_0988.jpg

21_DSC_0425.jpg

22_DSC_0446.jpg

24_DSC_0101.jpg

20_DSC_0643.jpg







Stars as atoms; atoms as stars.


iPhone video of fluid dynamics in a body of water; a web of crests and troughs forms a lattice of refracted light. The dispersion of waves looks like a sped-up version of the Universe simulation below.



Simulation of a section of the Universe at its largest scale; a web of cosmic filaments forms a lattice of matter. These filaments are massive thread-like formations comprised of huge amounts of galaxies, gas and ‘dark matter.’ (Image: Greg Poole)







Further reading:

  1. Link: Fluid simulation with reaction-diffusion patterns
  2. Link: Fluid dynamics simulation
  3. Link: Turing patterns made with WebGL simulations
  4. Link: Jonathan McCabe Vimeo feed
  5. Link: Paul Prudence Twitter feed
  6. Link: Fractal simulation animation
  7. Link: Powers of Ten and the Relative Size of Things in the Universe

  8. Book:  Nature’s Patterns — Philip Ball
  9. Book:  Disaspora — Greg Egan
  10. Book: A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History — Manuel De Landa
  11. Book:  Cymatics: A Study of Wave Phenomena & Vibration — Hans Jenny
  12. PDF: The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis — Alan Turing
  13. PDF:  Cyclic Symmetric Multi-Scale Turing Patterns by Jonathan McCabe

  14. Video: Metabolizing Complexity — Ben Cerveny
  15. Video: The Augmented World Experience — Ben Cerveny
  16. Video: Documentary: The Secret Life of Chaos
  17. Video: Philip Ball on Alan Turing’s research on morphogenesis
  18. Video:  Reaction-Diffusion-based animation
  19. Video:   Fluid Dynamics Simulation
  20. Video:  Documentary on Cymatics
  21. Video:  Demonstration of Chladni Patterns
  22. Video:  Demonstration of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction
  23. Video:  How Does Life Come From Randomness?
  24. Video:  Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in cellular automata